5.4. Expressions

Expressions are combinations of operands and operators. Operands are values in themselves, which may be expressions surrounded by ( ). Operators are logical, arithmetic, or string and the valid operators depend on the types of the operands.

5.4.1. Literal Values

Literal values can be individual lexical elements such as identifiers_, numbers_, and strings_.

Literal arrays are sequences of comma-separated values surrounded by brackets [ ].


LET a: Array<Number> := [1, 2, 3]

Literal dictionaries are sequences of comma-separated name/value pairs surrounded by braces { }.


LET d: Dictionary<Number> := {
    "one": 1,
    "two": 2,
    "three": 3

For convenience, both literal arrays and dictionaries accept a trailing comma after the final element.

5.4.2. Boolean Operators

The following operators take two boolean values.

Operator Description
= equality
<> inequality
AND logical conjunction
OR logical disjunction

5.4.3. Numeric Operators

The following operators take two number values.

Operator Description
+ addition
- subtraction
* multiplication
/ division
MOD modulo (remainder)
^ exponentiation
= equality
<> inequality
< less than
> greater than
<= less than or equal
>= greater than or equal

5.4.4. String Operators

The following operators take two string values.

Operator Description
& concatenation
= equality
<> inequality
< lexicographical less than
> lexicographical greater than
<= lexicographical less than or equal
>= lexicographical greater than or equal

5.4.5. Array Operators

Operator Description
IN membership test (O(n) complexity)

5.4.6. Dictionary Operators

Operator Description
IN membership test (O(log n) complexity)

5.4.7. Pointer Operator

Operator Description
-> pointer dereference

5.4.8. Operator Precedence

The operator precedence is as follows, highest to lowest:

Operator Description
( ) subexpression
^ exponentiation
* / MOD multiplication, division, modulo
+ - & addition, subtraction, concatenation
< = > comparison
IN membership
AND conjunction
OR disjunction
IF conditional

5.4.9. Array Subscripts

Array subscripts are normally integers greater than or equal to zero:

LET a: Array<String> := ["foo", "bar", "baz"]

Two special values may be used, FIRST and LAST:

LET a: Array<String> := ["foo", "bar", "baz"]

FIRST always means the same as 0 and is provided for completeness. LAST refers to the index of the last element of the array.

Array slices are also possible using the TO keyword. Both indexes are inclusive:

LET a: Array<String> := ["foo", "bar", "baz"]
LET b: Array<String> := a[0 TO 1]
LET c: Array<String> := a[LAST-1 TO LAST]

In the above example, b contains ["foo", "bar"] and c contains ["bar", "baz"].

5.4.10. Expression Substitution

Literal strings may contain embedded expressions surrounded by the special escape \( ). These expressions are evaluated at run time. The type of the embedded expression must have a .toString() method which will be called automatically to convert the result to a string.


LET a: Array<String> := ["one", "two", "three"]
FOR i := 0 TO 2 DO
    print("i is \(i) and the array element is \(a[i])")


formatting specifiers