5.1. Lexical Structure

Neon source code is encoded in UTF-8. All keywords and identifiers are case sensitive.

5.1.1. Comments

The comment lead-in character is %. A single line comment is a % followed by arbitrary text to the end of the line. A block comment is introduced with %| and ends with |%. Block comments may span multiple lines. Block comments may be nested.

Example:

% The following line prints some text.
print("Hello, World.")

%| This comment spans multiple
   lines of text until the comment
   closing characters. |%

5.1.2. Keywords

All words that consist of only uppercase letters are reserved for keywords. The following keywords are defined by the language.

Keyword Description
ALIAS used in IMPORT to optionally rename a module
AND logical conjunction
AS names a tested expression in IF VALID statement
ASSERT assert that an expression is true, used for diagnostics
Array generic array type
BEGIN used in BEGIN MAIN to indicate a program entry point
CASE multiple value matching from a range
CONSTANT constant declaration
DECLARE exception and forward function declaration
DEFAULT default value for function parameter
DEC decrement a Number variable
Dictionary generic dictionary type
DO used in CASE, FOR, and WHILE statements
ELSE alternative condition in IF statement
ELSIF alternative and test in IF statement
EMBED include an external file directly into the compiled code
ENUM enumeration type declaration
END end of most kinds of blocks of code
EXCEPTION exception declaration
EXIT early exit from loops
EXPORT export identifier from module
FOREIGN foreign function declaration
FALSE boolean constant
FIRST indicates first value in array subscript
FOR loop with a sequential control variable
FOREACH loop over an array of values
FUNCTION definition of subprogram
HEXBYTES literal Bytes value
IF conditional test and branch
IN function parameter passing mode; aggregate membership test
INC increment a Number variable
INDEX used in FOREACH statement for counting values
INOUT function parameter passing mode
IMPORT access code in another module
IS used in a TYPE declaration
LAST indicates last value in array subscript
LET assignment to read-only value
LOOP generic loop
MAIN used in BEGIN MAIN to indicate a program entry point
MOD arithmetic modulus
NATIVE declares a predefined function in the standard library
NEXT early skip to next loop iteration
NEW dynamic memory allocation
NIL pointer value constant
NOT logical negation
OF used in FOREACH statement
OR logical disjunction
OUT function parameter passing mode
OTHERS alternative condition in a CASE statement
POINTER pointer type declaration
PRIVATE private record field
RAISE initiate exception search
RECORD named aggregate type declaration
REPEAT bottom-tested loop
RETURN early exit and value return from function
STEP used in FOR loop for increment value
THEN used in IF statement
TO used in FOR loop; part of pointer declaration
TRUE boolean constant
TRY start of exception-checked block
TYPE define named type
UNTIL used at end of REPEAT loop
VAR variable declaration
VALID used in IF VALID pointer test statement
WHEN used in CASE statement
WHILE top-tested loop
WITH parameter specification for named parameters

5.1.3. Identifiers

An identifier is a letter followed by any number of letters, digits, or underscore. Identifiers which consist of all uppercase letters are reserved for keywords.

5.1.4. Numbers

Literal numbers are in base 10 by default.

Numbers may be specified in a variety of bases:

  • Binary preceded by 0b
  • Octal preceded by 0o
  • Hexadecimal preceded by 0x
  • Any base from 2 to 36 preceded by 0#n# where n is the base

For base 10 numbers, they may contain a fractional portion following a decimal point .. Additionally, they may have an exponent following e or E.

5.1.5. Strings

Strings are sequences of Unicode characters surrounded by double quotes. The only special character within a string is the backslash, used for character escapes. The allowed character escapes are:

Escape Replacement Description
\" double quote
\\ \ backslash
\b chr(8) backspace
\f chr(11) form feed
\n chr(10) newline
\r chr(13) carriage return
\t chr(9) tab
\uXXXX chr(XXXX) Unicode character XXXX (where XXXX is a 4-digit hex number)
\() expression see `expression substitution`_

Example:

VAR s: String

s := "Hello, World"

Literal strings may need to contain backslashes (such as when used for regular expressions). Instead of using normal double-quoted strings, there are two varieties of “raw strings”. The first can contain any character except :

CONSTANT s: String := @"This string contains backslash (\) characters"

The second type of string uses arbitrary delimiters so that any literal string can be included in source. The simplest form is:

CONSTANT s: String := @@"This string contains backslashes (\) and "quotes"."@@

If there is a need to include the sequence "@@ within the string, an arbitrary identifier may appear between the @ at the start and end of the stiring. For example:

CONSTANT s: String := @raw@"A raw string example is @@"like this"@@."@raw@